Depression is usually treated with antidepressants
and/or psychosocial therapy. When used together correctly, therapy and
antidepressants are a powerful treatment plan for the depressed patient.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft), reduce depression by increasing levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter. Some clinicians prefer SSRIs for treatment of dysthymic disorder. Anxiety, diarrhea, drowsiness, headache, sweating, nausea, poor sexual functioning, and insomnia are all possible side effects of SSRIs.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are less expensive than SSRIs, but have more severe side effects including persistent dry mouth , sedation, dizziness, and cardiac arrhythmias. Because of these side effects, caution is taken when prescribing TCAs to elderly patients. TCAs include amitriptyline (Elavil), imipramine (Tofranil), and nortriptyline (Aventyl, Pamelor). Since a 10-day supply of TCAs can be lethal if ingested all at once, so these drugs may not be a preferred treatment option for patients at risk for suicide.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors), such as tranylcypromine (Parnate) and phenelzine (Nardil), block the action of monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme in the central nervous system. Patients taking MAOIs must avoid foods high in tyramine (found in aged cheeses and meats) to avoid potentially serious hypertensive side effects.
Heterocyclics include bupropion (Wellbutrin) and trazodone (Desyrel). Bupropion are prescribed to patients with a seizure disorders. Side effects include agitation, anxiety, confusion, tremor, dry mouth, fast or irregular heartbeat, headache, low blood pressure, and insomnia. Because trazodone has a sedative effect, it is useful in treating depressed patients with insomnia. Other possible side effects of trazodone include dry mouth, gastrointestinal distress, dizziness, and headache.gra na pianinie wrocław